Whereas incorporation applies the bill of rights to the states through the due process clause of the fourteenth amendment in reverse incorporation the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment has been held to apply to the federal government through the due process clause located in the fifth amendment for example in bolling v. The primary sponsor of the fourteenth amendment rep john bingham from ohio wanted the fourteenth amendment to extend the reach of the us bill of rights to the states eventually the united states supreme court nearly exclusively in the twentieth century began to incorporate various provisions of the us bill of rights to the states. The fourteenth amendment amendment xiv to the united states constitution was adopted on july 9 1868 as one of the reconstruction amendmentsarguably one of the most consequential amendments to this day the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection under the law and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the american civil war. As the due process clause of the 14th amendment became the source of various other rights that were inherent to our system of freedoms and liberties it also became the channel through which the amendments in the bill of rights became applicable to the states as well two general schools of thought emerged as to how this should be done. Fourteenth amendment amendment 1868 to the constitution of the united states that granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to african americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the civil war including them under the umbrella phrase all persons born or naturalized in the united states
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